Country Studies.

According to the website:
This website contains the on-line versions of books previously published in hard copy by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress as part of the Country Studies/Area Handbook Series sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Army between 1986 and 1998. Each study offers a comprehensive description and analysis of the country or region's historical setting, geography, society, economy, political system, and foreign policy.
Relevant sections include: Afghanistan (Islamic Conquest, Tajik, Uzbek, Turkmen, Kirghiz, Religion (Early Development of Islam, Sunni and Shia Islam, Sufism, Tenets of Islam, Islamic Expression in Afghanistan, Sunnis of the Hanafi School, Ithna Ashariya (Twelver or Imami) Shia, Ismailis, Sufis, Meaning and Practice, Politicized Islam), The Role of Islam, The Islamist Factor, Emergence of Modern Islamic Thought, The Islamic Youth Movement); Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan (Religion); Turkmenistan (Religion); Uzbekistan (The Jadidists and Basmachis, Religion (Islam in the Soviet Era, Islamic Fundamentalism, Mainstream Islam in the 1990s)).
Köçümkulkïzï, Elmira and Daniel C. Waugh. "Religion." In Traditional Cultures in Central Asia." Silk Road Seattle (2001),

Köçümkulkïzï and Waugh argue that "there is a syncretism between pre-Islamic religious tradition and Islamic norms, a fact which explains some of the distinctive features of Central Asian Islamic practice."  Further they state: "It is difficult for most Central Asians today to distinguish today between that which is Islamic and that which is shamanic or non-Islamic."  To fill out this argument they discuss shamanism, the Yasawi and Naqshbandi Sufi orders, formal/orthodox Islam of historic Bukhara and Samarqand, and sacred sites (mostly in Kyrgyzstan).  Among the sacred sites they mention and provide photos of petroglyphs, balbals, burial sites, trees (some with strips of cloth and others with bones), and cairns/oboos.  Other than mosques located nearby some of these sites and the presence of Arabic writing, it is unclear the relationship of these sites to Islam.  The last example of sycretism cited is the Gur-i Amir Mausoleum in Samarqand, Uzbekistan about which the author's state, "a pole with a horse tail has been erected over one of the graves in the interior, a feature characteristic of oboo ritual sites in other regions of Central Asia which were not influenced by Islam. "  Other interesting quotes are as follows:
Köçümkulkïzï, Elmira. "My 'Fairy-Tale' Kyrgyz Wedding." Silk Road Seattle (2004),

Complete with text, video clips, and translated wedding songs, Köçümkulkïzï describes her traditional Kyrgyz wedding in Kyrgyzstan.  While the article is not about Islam, the marriage was solemized by a mullah and a grandmother gave a special blessing.  That blessing is captured in one of the video clips and is described as follows: "The groom’s grandmother gave a special blessing to us and all of us said “Oomiyin!” (Amen!) by stroking our faces with both palms." The following quote lists the main customs and rituals observed in the wedding, including the Islamic marriage ceremony:
Encyclopaedia Iranica. "Encyclopaedia Iranica Online." Encyclopaedia Iranica.

According to its website: "The Encyclopædia Iranica is a comprehensive research tool, dedicated to the study of Iranian civilization in the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent."  Some of its articles are discuss popular Islam in Central Asia.  For example: Nowruz: In the Islamic Period; Tajikistan: Status of Islam Since 1917.  Descriptors: encyclopedia, website.
Keller, Shoshana. To Moscow, not Mecca: The Soviet Campaign Against Islam in Central Asia, 1917-1941. Westport, CN: Praeger, 2001. 

As her title states, Keller's book provides a history of the Soviet campaign against Islam in Central Asia.  The work is based on archival research in Moscow and Tashkent and bibliographic sources in Russian and English.  The Glossary and Index are not very extensive.
Shahbazi, A. Shapur. "Nowruz: In the Islamic Period." Encyclopaedia Iranica Online (November 15, 2009),

Shahbazi provides a concise history of Navruz from the Islamic conquest of Persia to the present day.  While he discusses the tension with observing ancient Iranian traditions in strictly Muslim societies, he also mentions that some Muslims associate Islamic traditions with the holiday.  For example, some believe that Navruz was the day when the following events occurred:
Roy, Olivier. "Islam." In The New Central Asia: The Creation of Nations. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press. Reprint 2005. First published in in the US in 2000. Originally published as La Nouvelle Asie centrale ou la fabrication des nations in 1997.

While Roy discusses political Islam, he also touches on Naqshbandiyya and Yasawiyya Sufism.  He also lists many of the books, including the Chahar kitab and Haftyek (see also Muhammad Ali 2006), that were used in families to preserve Islamic knowedge and that were passed from parents to children.  In his section on parallel Islam he discusses how the Soviet repression of Islam was tempered.  For example, shrines were labled as "museums" and local KGB were complicit or unaware of popular Islamic practices.

Contents: Traditional Islam in Central Asia; The Sufi Brotherhoods: A Sufism That is Omnipresent and Takes Many Forms; Sufism and Politics; Official Islam; Parallel Islam; The Islamist Radicalisation; The New Muftiyyas and Division of the Community. 

Descriptors: 2000s, chapter, political science, post-Soviet, R, Soviet, state control, Sufism; Hanafi, syncretism.
Dirks, William. "Zangori kema: Uzbek - English dictionary / Inglizcha - O'zbekcha lug'at,"

Dirks's free online dictionary contains English definitions for many Uzbek words that relate to popular Islam in Central Asia.  For example: bibi (seshanba), mavlud, murshid, namoz, otin, pir, etc. 

Descriptors: D, dictionary, e-content, linguistics, website.
Atkin, Muriel. "Tajikistan: Status of Islam Since 1917." Encyclopaedia Iranica Online (July 20, 2005),

Muriel provides a short overview of Islam in Tajikistan from 1917 to 2005.  While her review of the post-Soviet period discusses mostly political aspects of Islam, her discussion of the Soviet period does review popular Islam as in the following quote:
Below is a quote from an RFE/RL article about the Tulip Revolution II.  While this article will not be included in the bibliography, this quote reveals some interesting perceptions about the role of Islam in contemporary Kyrgyzstan.
Gulperi Adilova, who attended the funeral, said that whatever happens to Bakiev, when he dies he should be cremated rather than buried, as cremation is forbidden in the Islamic tradition and Bakiev has lost the right to call himself a good Muslim.
Pannier, Bruce. "State Islam, Outsiders Compete for Influence in Central Asia." Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, Features Section, April 5, 2010,

While this article is mostly about contemporary state control of Islam, it does contain the following quote which might reflect on a popular/mixed version of Islamic law in the region:
The preferred alternative preached by Jumanov and other state clerics is the region's traditional Hanafi School of Islamic Law -- considered by some to be the most liberal of the four schools of Sunni Islam (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali) -- mixed with Naqshbandi Sufism, a mystic order whose founder, Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari, came from Central Asia.
Sections: Competing Sects, Clerics Under Pressure, Separation of Mosque and State, Body and Soul, 'Connections to Terrorism'.  Descriptors: 2010s, e-news, interview, journalism, P, post-Soviet, state control
Curtis, Glenn E. "Religion." In Tajikistan: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1996,

Curtis's article is brief. While it mentions Islam before the Soviet period, its main forces is on the Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Below is a quote about popular Islam during the Soviet period. His Bibliography contains over 90 entries, many of which are reports.
Curtis, Glenn E. "Religion." In Turkmenistan: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1996,

Curtis discusses Sufi shaykhs and their role in syncretic Islamic practices, the authority of övlat lineages descended from the four Caliphs who succeeded Muhammad, Soviet atheism, and independent control of Islam.  See also his Bibliography which contains over 90 entries, mostly published in the 1990s and many of them U.S. or World Bank government agency reports.  Some of them relate to Islam in Central Asia. 

Sections: History and Structure; Religion After Independence.
Curtis, Glenn E. "Bibliography." In Kyrgyzstan: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1996,

Curtis's bibliography contains over 90 entries, mostly published in the 1990s.  Some of them relate to Islam in Central Asia.  See also his brief summaries in the section on ReligionDescriptors: 1990s, bibliography, C, Kyrgyzstan, website
Curtis, Glenn E. "Bibliography." In Kazakstan: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1996,

Curtis's bibliography contains over 70 entries, mostly published in the 1990s.  Some of them relate to Islam in Central Asia.  See also his brief summaries in the following sections: Religion; Islam in the Past; Islam and the StateDescriptors: 1990s, bibliography, C, Kazakhstan, post-Soviet, website
Curtis, Glenn E. "Bibliography." In Uzbekistan: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1996,

Curtis's bibliography contains over 70 entries, mostly published in the 1990s.  Some of them relate to Islam in Central Asia.  See also his brief summaries in the following sections: Religion; Islam in the Soviet Era; Islamic Fundamentalism; Mainstream Islam in the 1990sDescriptors: 1990s, bibliography, C, post-Soviet, Soviet, Uzbekistan, website
Djavadi, Abbas. "Fundamentalist Calls To Ignore Norouz Go Unheard In Iran, Afghanistan." Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, March 21, 2010, Commentary Section,

Djavadi reports that clerics in Iran and Afghanistan ruled that Navruz is un-Islamic and that it should not be celebrated.  Others believe that it is a Muslim holiday.  See Navruz.  As one commentator to the piece points out, why should people not be able to celebrate non-Islamic holidays.  Maybe the tension is that since many people in the region believe it to be a Muslim holiday (see Canfield (1993)), the clerics do not believe it can be celebrated as a secular holiday.  

Descriptors: 2010s, Afghanistan, D, e-news, holidays, interview, journalism, Navruz, post-Soviet; pluralism-textual/popular
Riasanovsky, V. A. "Juristic Customs of the Kirghiz." In Customary Law of the Nomadic Tribes of Siberia. Tientsin, 1938.

This chapter quotes some of the Kazakh (referred to by Riasanovsky as "Kirghiz (Kirghiz-Kaisaks)") customary laws (e.g. family, property, criminal) that were codified (e.g. "Laws of Khan Tevka") during the Tsarist period.  It also reviews some of the Mongol, Muslim, and Russian influences on customary law.  On page 24, Riasanovsky states: "As is well known, the Mohammedan religion exerted an influence on the laws of the peoples which professed it.  Such influence also existed among the Kirghiz." 
British Library. "Ethos Beta: Electronic Theses Online Service." British Library,

A new service of the British Library; 250,000 plus theses may be searched and some of them can be immediately downloaded with a free subscription.  There are some works in the library on Central Asia and some of those contain discussions of Islam in the region.  It appears that the British Library is in the process of digitizing all of its theses and so more electronic versions should become available.  Descriptors: B, bibliographic, dissertation, website
Sahadeo, Jeff and Russell Zanca, eds. Everyday Life in Central Asia: Past and Present. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.

Relevant sections in this edited book include: Communities (5-A Central Asian Tale of Two Cities: Locating Lives and Aspirations in a Shifting Post-Soviet Cityscape (Liu)); Gender (6-The Limits of Liberation: Gender, Revolution, and the Veil in Everyday Life in Soviet Uzbekistan (Northrop)); Performance and Encounter (13-Public and Private Celebrations: Uzbekistan's National Holidays (Adams)); Religion (19-Divided Faith: Trapped Between State and Islam in Uzbekistan (McGlinchey); 20-Sacred Sites, Profane Ideologies: Religious Pilgrimage and the Uzbek State (Abramson & Karimov); 21-Everyday Negotiations of Islam in Central Asia: Practicing Religion in The Uyghur Neighborhood of Zarya Vostoka in Almaty, Kazakhstan (Roberts); 22-Namaz, Wishing Trees, and Vodka: The Diversity of Everyday Religious Life in Central Asia (Montgomery)).  Descriptors: 2000s, anthropology, book, edited, political science, S, Z
Gross, Jo-Ann, ed. Muslims in Central Asia: Expressions of Identity and Change. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992.

Relevant sections in this edited book include: introduction: Approaches to the Problem of Identity Formation (Gross); I-The Shaping and Reshaping of Identity (2-Religious, National, and Other Identities in Central Asia (Atkin); 3-Ethnic Identity and Political Expression in Northern Afghanistan (Roy)); II-Islam as a Source of Identity (4-The Hui, Islam, and the State: A Sufi Community in China's Northwest Corner (Gladney); 6-Islam in a Changing Society: The Khojas of Eastern Turkistan (Togan)); III-Discourse as a Cultural Expression of Identity (7-Beyond Renewal: The Jadid Response to Pressure for Change in the Modern Age (Lazzerini); 8-Interpreting the Poetry of Mahktumquli (Feldman); 9-Abdullah Qadiriy and the Bolsheviks: From Reform to Revolution (Murphy)). 

Descriptors: 1990s, book, edited, G, history, identity.
Northrop, Douglas. "Subaltern Dialogues: Subversion and Resistance in Soviet Uzbek Family Law." Slavic Review 60, no. 1 (2001): 115-139. 

Northrop reviews the Soviet attempt to change Uzbek family life through law (byt crimes) and the complications that are inherent with such law reform projects.  He first reviews how the Soviets chose which traditions to criminalize, then how they attempted to enforce those crimes, the local reaction to enforcement, and finally the negotiated outcome.  He uses local archives, Uzbek and Russian language materials, and contemporary scholarship as sources.  This article is part of his book Veiled Empire.  He also wrote, "The Limits of Liberation."

Sections: Custom Criminalized: Defining a Canon of "Byt Crimes;" Soviet Law as a Starting Point: Negotiation, Subversion, Creativity; Reworking Bolshevism from Within: The Uzbek Soviet Apparatus; Languages of Power: Uzbeks Outside the Party. 

Descriptors: 2000s, archival, bibliographic, bride price, divorce, history, Islamic law, journal, marriage, N, reform, Soviet, Uzbekistan, Uzbeks, women; Zhenotdel, qalin.
Rasanayagam, Johan. 2006. "Healing with Spirits and the Formation of Muslim Selfhood in Post-Soviet Uzbekistan" The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 12, no. 2 (2006): 377-393.

Rasanayagam states: "In this article I will examine how people explore what it means to be a Muslim through ... healing with the aid of spirits."  He explores how healers have responded to increasing post-Soviet "scripturalist" interpretations of Islam. He argues that healers, "construct themselves as 'proper' Muslims according to the orthodoxies authorized by official imams while maintaining their own, often highly individual, interpretations and practices." 

Sections: A Particular Mode of Access to Divine Power and Knowledge; Healing Cosmologies; Orthodoxy in the Making; Authorizing Processes; Notes.  Descriptors: 2000s, anthropology, diversity, ethnography, healers, journal, otins, post-Soviet, R, rituals, spirits, Uzbekistan; pluralism-textual/popular, Hanafi, syncretism, tabibs, oqsoqols, otins, perikhon, saints, bakshis, mavlud, hatma Qur'an, bibi seshanba, mushkul kushod, jinn, qori, avlio, alcohol
Fathi, Habiba. "Gender, Islam, and Social Change in Uzbekistan." Central Asian Survey 25, no. 3 (2006): 303-317.

This is a continuation of Fathi's (1997) prior work on otins.  In her own words: "This chapter explores the way in which the role of the otin-oyi or bibi-khalife has responded to recent socio-economic and political developments and will place the Central Asian experience within the context of the role of women in Islam more generally."  Many of her sources are in French and Russian.

Sections: The Central Asian Case in a Global Muslim Context; Otin-oyi and Bibi-Khalife Past and Present: Reproduction or Reinterpretation?; Russian Turkestan; Soviet Central Asia; Challenging Religious Tradition in the Independent States; Conclusion.  Cross References: Fathi 1997Descriptors: 2000s, ACTORS, archival, bibliographic, F, history, interview, journal, otins, post-Soviet, reform, Soviet, Tsarist, Uzbeks, women.
Tucker, Noah. "They Might Be Muslims!? (Part 2)." All Central Asia, All the Time (March 13, 2009),

In Tucker's own words: "This section advocates another way of understanding Central Asian Islam as an alternative to forcing it to one end or another of the “real=dangerous, unreal=safe” spectrum.  The paper closes with what I think are serious potential dangers of cramming the whole religious life of a region on one end or another of a faulty black/white paradigm."  He warns that the contemporary political oppression and poverty in the region, especially Uzbekistan, could create conflict and that Islam, while not the cause of conflict, could be a rallying point.  To avoid conflict, he argues that religion (including Islam) should not be set aside and more popular expression (including religious) should be granted.  See also (Part 1).  Descriptors: 2000s, bibliographic, blog, CA studies, diversity, post-Soviet, T, Uzbekistan
Tucker, Noah. "They Might Be Muslims!? (Part 1)." All Central Asia, All the Time (March 13, 2009),

Tucker critiques the contemporary scholarship on religion (including Islam) in Central Asia and the debate over the "nature" of Central Asian Islam (e.g. "real Islam" v. "Central Asian Islam").  He argues that scholarship on Islam in Central Asia should not accept or be based on the misconceived premise that "Muslim=violent fanatic." See also (Part 2).

Descriptors: 2000s, bibliographic, blog, CA studies, diversity, post-Soviet, T.
Adams, Laura. "Public and Private Celebrations: Uzbekistan's National Holidays." In Everyday Life in Central Asia: Past and Present, edited by Jeff Sahadeo and Russell Zanca, 198-212. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.

Among other holidays in this chapter Adams describes contemporary Qurbon Hayiti, Ramazan Hayiti, and Navruz.  In her discussion of the two Eids (Qurbon Hayiti, Ramazan Hayiti), she mentions Ramadan fasting.  She describes Navruz as a secular holiday even though it has Zoroastrian elements and fails to mention that many people in Central Asia consider it a Muslim holiday.  See, for example, Canfield (1993)

Sections: Religious Holidays; Secular Holidays; A Typical Holiday; Notes; References.  Cross References: Canfield 1993; Sahadeo and Zanca 2007Descriptors: 2000s, A, bibliographic, chapter, description, holidays, Navruz, post-Soviet, Qurbon Hayit, Ramadan, Roza Hayit, Uzbekistan, Uzbeks; syncretism, pluralism-textual/popular.
Tabyshalieva, Anara. "The Kyrgyz and the Spiritual Dimensions of Daily Life." In Islam and Central Asia: An Enduring Legacy or an Evolving Threat?, edited by R. Z. Sagdeev and Susan Eisenhower, 27-38. A Center for Political and Strategic Studies book. Washington, DC: Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 2000.

Tabyshalieva's first two sections briefly discuss sacred sites in Kyrgyzstan, including Suleiman's Mountain in Osh.  The third and fourth sections discuss religious pluralism.  She divides Kyrgyzstan into three parts: Bishkek with Christian groups; the North with "traditional" Islam; and the South with "strict" Islam.  The section on women briefly discusses the veil, polygamy, abortion, and male-domination.  The last section discusses political issues in other Central Asian countries.  In conclusion, she argues that Central Asian states should be more transparent and open with religion in order to prevent conflicts.  Tabyshalieva's chapter covers a lot of material, but not in depth.
Sagdeev, Roald. "Historical Background." In "Central Asia and Islam: An Overview." In Islam and Central Asia: An Enduring Legacy or an Evolving Threat?, edited by R. Z. Sagdeev and Susan Eisenhower, 7-10. A Center for Political and Strategic Studies book. Washington, DC: Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 2000.

This four page section is a brief standard historical overview of Islam in Central Asia.  It has a larger emphasis on the Soviet period and only one sentence on the contemporary period.  In addition to the basic history, it briefly discusses Jadids, but not Sufism.  The other sections in the chapter, which are more political, include: The Transformation of Islam in Post-Soviet Central Asia; The Great Split; Interconnections with Russia; External Factors in the Islamic World; Islam and Regional Problems.

Descriptors: 2000s, chapter, general knowledge, overview, pre-Tsarist, R, science, section, Soviet, Tsarist.
National Council for Eurasian and East European Research, The. "Vladimir I. Toumanoff Virtual Library." The National Council for Eurasian and East European Research,
The Library contains several hundred of the working papers submitted to NCEEER by scholars under their grants over the last two decades. Accordingly, this collection captures the efforts of some of our country's best researchers and analysts on the politics, history, sociology, economics and/or foreign policy of the states of the former Soviet Union and Central and Eastern Europe.
Many works on Islam in Central Asia are included in this online database which contains papers from 1998.  Earlier papers are available through the University of Washington Libraries.  For those papers, search  Catalog. Seat Working paper and abstracts since 2001 are arranged by date.  There is also an annotated bibliography of working papers from 1980 to 2000.  Descriptors: bibliography, N, post-Soviet, Soviet, website
"Seventeen Moments in Soviet History."

Seventeen Moments in Soviet History contains a rich archive of texts, images, maps and audio and video materials from the Soviet era (1917-1991). The materials are arranged by year and by subject, are fully searchable, and are translated into English. Students, educators, and scholars will find fascinating materials about Soviet propaganda, politics, economics, society, crime, literature, art, dissidents and hundreds of other topics.
The following sections relate to Islam in Central Asia and contain photos, images, videos, and text (including translated documents): The Muslim East: Central Asia and the Muslim East (e.g. veil images, proclamations, constitutions, and Stalin speeches); and Antireligious Propaganda (e.g. anti-Islamic propaganda and the Soviet Policy on Islam).  Registration is required to obtain access to all material.

Descriptors: archival, audio, e-content, maps, photos, Soviet, translation, video, website.
Berlin State Library - Germany. "European Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies (EBSEES)." Berlin State Library - Germany,

This website is a database of about 85,500 works from 1991-2007 in English and European languages contributed by academic organizations from Western Europe on Slavic and East European Studies.  It contains simple and advanced search engines and browsing by subject headings and tag clouds.  Some works on Islam in Central Asia are included.  Descriptors: 1990s, 2000s, B, bibliography, website
Niyazi, Aziz. "Islam and Tajikistan's Human and Ecological Crisis." In Civil society in Central Asia, edited by M. Holt Ruffin and Daniel Waugh, 180-197. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999.

On page 180, Niyazi describes his thesis and chapter as follows: "In Tajikistan, traditional Islamic values, which are concerned with a balanced approach to human development and the conservation of natural resources, may be the key to stable long-term development.  This essay will review the nature of Islam in Tajikistan, discuss the connection between the 'Islamic revival' there and the crisis that erupted in the 1990s, and then propose in general terms the way in which local tradition may hold the solution to problems of stable development."  In the section on tradition, Niyazi discusses Sufism, shrines, and sacred places.  The chapter notes have long explanations and cite English and Russian sources.

Contents: Tradition; The Industrial Onslaught-The Islamic Response; Wider Implications; Traditional Society and Contemporary Problems of Stable Development; notes.  Descriptors: 1990s, bibliographic, chapter, history, N, post-Soviet, reform, Tajikistan.
Hanks, Reuel. "Civil Society and Identity in Uzbekistan: The Emergent Role of Islam." In Civil society in Central Asia, edited by M. Holt Ruffin and Daniel Waugh, 158-179. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999.

After defining civil society, the second section provides a basic overview of historical and contemporary Islam in Central Asia.  He argues that Islam is plural within Central Asia (e.g. Sufism and sacred places) and, due to the Soviet legacy, is different in Central Asia than in other parts of the world.  In the third section, he uses survey data (including his own small sample of students in Uzbekistan) to review the religiosity of Muslims in Central Asia.  Based on the surveys, he argues on page 166, that "Islam is seen now by many, if not most, traditionally Muslim groups as the moral foundation of Uzbek society."  The fourth discusses the mahalla and its relationship with Islam.  The final section argues that Islam would be an important factor in any civil society in Uzbekistan.
Polat, Abdummanob. "Islam and the Wahabis: A Threat to Stability?" In "Can Uzbekistan Build Democracy and Civil Society?" In Civil society in Central Asia, edited by M. Holt Ruffin and Daniel Waugh, 141-144.  Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999.

In this four page section, Polat reviews the state control of unofficial Muslim clergy in contemporary Uzbekistan.  He mentions many of the names of Muslim religious leaders who have been suppressed and discusses the tension between "traditional" Islam and stricter versions of Islam.  The following quote from page 142, which likely holds true today (see McGlinchey), portrays the affect of state suppression on the everyday life of Muslims in Uzbekistan:  "Today, there is no known Islamic leader in Uzbekistan, either official or independent, who feels free to express his views publicly." 

Descriptors: 1990s, A, chapter, diversity, political science, post-Soviet, section, state control, Uzbekistan; pluralism-textual/popular.
Krämer, Gudrun, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, and Everett Rowson, eds. Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online, 2010.

The third edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is similar to the second edition, but it has much fewer entries.  Some of the few entries relating to Central Asia include Astana (nothing about Islam) and Babur.  Descriptors: 2010s, bibliographic, encyclopedia, K, M, N, post-Soviet, pre-Tsarist, R, Soviet, Tsarist.
Bearman, P., Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, and W.P. Heinrichs, eds. Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online, 2010.

The Encyclopaedia of Islam is an excellent source of information on Islamic regions in general, especially if you have online access.  As for Central Asia, it includes entries for its countries, cities, people, historical figures, literary works, movements, and even kumis (fermented mares milk).  From these entries, and others, basic information about the history, repression, and pracitce of Islam in historical and present day Central Asia can be found.  Descriptors: 2010s, B, bibliographic, D, encyclopedia, H, post-Soviet, pre-Tsarist, Soviet, Tsarist.
Jones, Schuyler. "Religion." In Afghanistan, 143-145. World bibliographical Series, v. 135. Oxford, England: Clio Press, 1992.

Jones only includes 15 works (all in the English language) on religion (mostly Islam) in his bibliography of Afghanistan.  In addition to the chapter on Religion, works on Islam might be included in other chapters.  Descriptors: 1990s, Afghanistan, bibliography, chapter, J, Soviet
Bregel, Yuri. "Religion." In Bibliography of Islamic Central Asia, Part I: History; Religion; Culture, 671-712. Bloomington, IN: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, Indiana University, 1995.

Bregel's bibliography is three two-inch thick volumes covering everything to do with Central Asia.  The section on religion is only one section of the bibliography and works touching on Islam in Central Asia might be found in other sections.  Most of the works are in Russian or other Central Asian languages.  Because this bibliography is so comprehensive, it appears to be a great tool for researching foreign sources on Central Asia.  It's main limitation is that it was published in 1995 and does not include the many subsequent publications, including those in English, on the region.

Relevent Sections: Islam (General; Islamization; Islam under Russian Rule; Islam under Chinse Rule; Theology and Law; Sects (Ismailiyya; Other); Sufism (General, Early Sufism; Under Russian Rule; Under Chinese Rule; Sufi Orders: Naqshabandiyya; Sufi Orders: Yasaviyya; Sufi Orders: Kubraviyya; Sufi Orders:Other); Saints and Holy Places; Popular Beliefs and Practices.  Descriptors: 1990s, B, bibliography, chapter, post-Soviet, pre-Tsarist, Soviet, Tsarist
Hanks, Reuel. "Religion." In Uzbekistan, 68-84. World Bibliographical Series, v. 218. Oxford, England: Clio Press, 1999,  

In 17 pages, Hanks reviews 51 English language works on religion (mainly Islam) in Uzbekistan.  In addition to this chapter on religion, works discussing Islam in Uzbekistan can be found in other chapters including those entitled Anthropology and Cultural Studies; and Women and Gender Issues.  In his introduction, he notes that the bibliography is not intended to be comprehensive.  Most of the works were published in the 1980s and 1990s and the oldest was published in 1959.  The electronic version of this book is a nice feature.  Descriptors: 1990s, bibliography, chapter, e-book, H, Uzbekistan, website
Malashenko, Alexei. "Islam in Central Asia." In  Central Asian Security: The New International Context, edited by Roy Allison and Lena Jonson, 49-68. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2001.

According to Malashenko on page 49: "The purpose of this chapter is to discuss Islam as a factor both for consolidating and for dividing the Central Asian states."  Malashenko argues that Islam as a religious heritage did not consolidate the contemporary Central Asian states, but the threat of radical Islam did to some extent with regard to security. Malashenko also discusses the "Islamic factor" with regard to Central Asian foreign relations with Russian and the wider Muslim world.  Finally, he concludes that Islam has an influence, but is not a principle factor in Central Asian foreign relations.

Contents: Islam in Central Asian Society; Radical Islam and the Central Asian States; The 'Islamic Factor' and the Role of Russia; Central Asia and the Wider Muslim World; Prospects for the Future; Notes.  Descriptors: 2000s, chapter, foreign relations, M, political science, post-Soviet.
Robins, Philip. "Religion and Language.'" In "The Middle East and Central Asia." In The New States of Central Asia and their Neighbours, edited by Peter Ferdinand, 61-63. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1994. 

The relevant pages of this three page section briefly discuss Central Asia's contemporary relationship with the Middle East with regard to Islam.  While Muslims live in both regions, Robins notes differences between the two regions and argues that it is wrong to assume that Central Asia will follow the political path of the Middle East.

Descriptors: 1990s, chapter, foreign relations, political science, post-Soviet, R, section.
Sinor, Denis. "Some Latin Sources on the Khanate of Uzbek." In Essays on Uzbek History, Culture, and Language, edited by Bakhtiyar A. Nazarov, Denis Sinor, and Devin A. DeWeese, 110-119.  Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, v. 156, edited by Dennis Sinor. Bloomington: Indiana University, Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, 1993.

"Uzbek, Khan of the Golden Horde (r. 1313-1342)," is known as "the first khan of the Golden Horde to adopt Islam as a state religion" and "ruler of the Uzbek nation" (p. 110).  Even though Islam was the state religion under his rule, the Latin sources reviewed here by Sinor show that he maintained religious tolerance with Mongols and Christians.

Descriptors: 1990s, archival, biography, chapter, historical, history, pre-Tsarist, S, Uzbeks.
Khalid, Adeeb. The Politics of Muslim Cultural Reform: Jadidism in Central Asia. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998.

Khalid's book covers Jadid reformers in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries who sought to reform Islam in order to reconcile it with modernity and who used the media as a tool and promoted modern education.  In describing the debates prompted by the Jadids of what is "Islamic," Kahlid argues as follows on page xiii: "Islam, and Muslim culture, and the sense of being Muslim are far from immutable characteristics; rather, they change and evolve and do so through debate and the struggles of different groups in Muslim society."

Sections: List of Tables; Preface; Technical Note; Abbreviations; Introduction; 1-Knowledge and Society in the Nineteenth Century; 2-The Making of a Colonial Society; 3-The Origins of Jadidism; 4-The Politics of Admonition; 5-Knowledge as Salvation; 6-Imagining the Nation; 7-Navigating the Nation; 8-1917: The Moment of Truth; Epilogue; Select Bibliography; Index. Descriptors: 1990s, archival, bibliographic, book, diversity, history, jadids, K, reform, Soviet, Tsarist.
Levi, Scott C. and Ron Sela. Islamic Central Asia: An Anthology of Historical Sources. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010.

Levi and Sela's anthology is a great compilation of a diverse type of Central Asian historical and literary works from the Seventh to the Nineteenth Centuries, many of which are not widely accessible in English.  Each work contains a brief introduction and then a sample (the complete text in some cases) of the subject text translated into English.  Even though its title states "Islamic Central Asia," many of the works are not Islamic, but important historical works. The Acknowledgments are very important as they give the bibliographic citations for the sources of the works included in this book.

Sections: Acknowledgments; Introduction; Central Asia in the Early Islamic Period, Seventh to Tenth Centuries; Encounter with the Turks; The Mongol Empire; Timur and the Timurids; Central Asia in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries; Central Asia in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries; Glossary; Index.  Descriptors: 2010s, anthology, historical, history, L, literature, pre-Tsarist, S, Soviet, Tsarist
Poliakov, Sergei P. and Martha Brill Olcott. Everyday Islam: Religion and Tradition in Rural Central Asia. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1992.

This book is the work of Poliakov based on his more than thirty years of field research in Soviet Central Asia.  Oclott merely provides editing and an introduction.  According to Olcott, Poliakov believes that Central Asian traditionalism ("Everyday Islam") needs to be reformed.  In the chapter on religion, Poliakov discusses madrasas, mosques, otins, mazar/shrine visits, mazar/Sufi sheikhs, official and unofficial mullahs, SADUM, the mahalla, and other topics.

Sections: Map of Central Asia; Glossary; By Way of Introduction: Martha Brill Olcott; Background; Economic Bases of Traditionalism; Traditionalism and the Family; The Role of Religion in the Community (Religious Institutions; The Clergy); Social Dynamics of Traditionalism; Notes; Index of Subjects; Index of Place Names.  Descriptors: 1990s, anthropology, book, ethnography, mahalla, O, P, reform, Soviet
DeWeese, Devin. "A Neglected Source on Central Asian History: The 17th Century Yasavi Hagiography, Manaqib Al-Akhyar." In Essays on Uzbek History, Culture, and Language, edited by Bakhtiyar A. Nazarov, Denis Sinor, and Devin A. DeWeese, 38-50.  Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, v. 156, edited by Dennis Sinor. Bloomington: Indiana University, Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, 1993.

DeWeese in this chapter reviews the Manaqib Al-Akhyar, a hagiographical account completed by Muhammad Qasim in 1626. According to DeWeese this account contains valuable information on the history of Central Asia and the Yasavi and Nashqabandi Sufi tariqas.  Descriptors: 1990s, archival, chapter, D, historical, literature, pre-Tsarist, Sufism
Djumataeva, Venera. "In Kyrgyzstan Polygamy's Rise Takes its Toll." Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, March 8, 2010, Features section,

Djumataeva describes the experience of two women in Kyrgyzstan whose husband has two wives, the second of which he married through a religious Islamic ceremony that is not recognized by the state.  The first woman is older and her husband married a younger wife without her consent.  The second is the younger second wife of her husband.  Both women are not happy with their situation.  The article discusses the tension between state law and Islamic law with regard to polygamy and the negative effects of polygamy on women.

Sections: Signs of Improvement; Fears Punishment.  Descriptors: 2010s, Bishkek, D, e-news, Islamic law, journalism, Kyrgyzstan, marriage, women
Khalid, Adeeb. Islam After Communism: Religion and Politics in Central Asia. Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007.

In response to 9/11, and perhaps works written on political Islam in Central Asia after 9/11, this book provides an introduction to contemporary (and historical) Islam in Central Asia with a focus more on politics than popular religious practices.  Khalid argues that Islam in the region is secular not political and that it forms part of the region's national identity.  His contemporary research is focused mostly on Uzbekistan.

Sections: List of Maps and Tables; Acknowledgments; Introduction; Islam in Central Asia; Empire and the Challenge of Modernity; The Soviet Assault on Islam; Islam in Opposition; The Politics of Antiterrorism; Conclusion: Andijan and Beyond; Glossary; Notes; Select Bibliography; Index.  Descriptors: 2000s, book, history, K, post-Soviet, secular Islam, Soviet
Louw, Maria Elisabeth. Everyday Islam in Post-Soviet Central Asia. Central Asian Studies Series, Vol. 7. New York: Routledge, 2007.

Louw provides an excellent introduction to Sufism, veneration of saints, shrine visits (like the Naqshbandi shrine), and popular Islamic rituals (like bibi Seshanba) in Bukhara, Uzbekistan.
Fathi, Habiba. "Otines: The Unknown Women Clerics of Central Asian Islam." Central Asian Survey 16, no. 1 (1997): 27-44.

Fathi's article uses Soviet sources to review otins (women Islamic teachers) in Uzbekistan. It provides a good insight into the role of some women in Soviet society and how, despite Soviet attempts to promote atheism, otins helped to preserve Islam and tradition. Before describing otins, it reviews issues such as the bride price, legal age for marriage, marriage, polygamy, the hujum, the veil, parandja, etc.  See also Fathi (2006).

Contents: The Soviet State and the Central Asian Woman; The Traditional Role of the Otines; The Role of the Otines in the Survival of Islam; The Mahalla: a Place of Memory; Initiation; Authority in the Community; The Central Asian Family: An Obstacle to the Emergence of Homo Sovieticus; Islam and Independence
Akiner, Shiri2009n. "Islam and State 'Ideologies.'" In "Post-Soviet Central Asia: Past is Prologue." In The New States of Central Asia and their Neighbors, edited by Peter Ferdinand, 20-23. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1994. 

The first two pages of this four page section briefly review pre-Soviet, Soviet, and post-Soviet Islam in Central Asia. They take the view that Islam was not very strong in the pre-Soviet and Soviet periods and discuss state control of Islam in the post-Soviet period.  The last two pages discuss nation building efforts in the region. 
Shoujiang, Mi and You Jia. Islam in China, translated by Min Chang. China: China Intercontinental Press, 2004.

Shoujiang and Jia discuss the history of Islam in China, but they do so from the perspective of the Chinese government.  Therefore, there is greater discussion of the Hui and less discussion of the other nine officially recognized Muslim ethnic groups, very little discussion of the damage done to Islam in China by the Cultural Revolution, no discussion of the repression of Islam in northwestern China, and a perspective that northwestern China was always part of China.  The English translation is not the best and it may not be available in the west.

Sections: Spread and Development of Islam in China; Nationalization of Islam in China; Islam in the Republic of China Period; Islam in the Initial Period of New China; Chinese Islam in New Times. Descriptors: 2000s, book, C, China, history, J, overview, post-Soviet, pre-Tsarist, S, Soviet, Tsarist
Frank, Allen J. and Jahangir Mamatov. Dictionary of Central Asian Islamic Terms. Hyattsville, MD: Dunwoody Press, 2002.

This dictionary attempts to fill the gap left by many Soviet era dictionaries of the Central Asian languages that did not include many Islamic terms.  It's sources are Islamic documents and audio recordings in the region corroborated by native speakers.  It contains an Index of words from and dictionary entries with variant spellings from the following languages.  Arabic, Bakshir, Karakalpak, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tajik, Tatar, Turkmen, Uygur, and Uzbek.

Sections: Introduction; What is an Islamic Terms; Sources; Central Asia; Sources (graphic and audio); Abbreviations; Indexes; The Dictionary.  Descriptors: 2000s, audio, bibliographic, book, dictionary, F, linguistics, M, post-Soviet
Spotorno, Carlos. "Hui Mosque: A Place of Worship for China's 'Other' Muslims." Steppe: A Central Asian Panorama, Steppe Seven, Winter 2009/10, Snapshot Section.

Spotorno's photograph here is of the interior of a contemporary Hui mosque in Xinjiang, China.  The one page text briefly describes the Hui and their mosque architecture from a Uygur perspective.  Descriptors: 2010s, architecture, China, Hui, identity, magazine, photography, photos, post-Soviet, S, Xinjiang
Brend, Barbara. "Architecture and Tilework."  In "The Last Eastern Invaders: The Mongol and Timurid Empires." In Islamic Art, 125-132. London: British Museum Press, 1991.

In addition to architectural works in Iran, this section covers, with text and images, the Shah-i-Zinda complex, the Bibi Khanum Mosque, the Gur-i Amir complex, and Ulug Beg Madrasa in Samarqand, Uzbekistan.  Descriptors: 1990s, architecture, B, chapter, photography, pre-Tsarist, Samarqand, section, Uzbekistan
Canfield, Robert L. "New Year's Day at Ali's Shrine." In Everyday Life in the Muslim Middle East, edited by Donna Lee Bowen and Evelyn A. Early, 234-238. Indiana Series in Arab and Islamic studies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

Canfield's chapter is short, but very descriptive.  He portrays the sights, sounds, and smells at Ali's tomb on a particular 1968 Navruz in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan as well as the rituals performed there and the hope for healings and blessings. 
Gladney, Dru C. Ethnic Identity in China: The Making of a Muslim Minority Nationality. Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology, edited by George and Louise Spindler. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998.

In this ethnographic book, Gladney traces the identity of the contemporary Hui (sometimes referred to as "Chinese" Muslims) throughout China, including northwestern china.  He concludes that, even though the Hui identify with one another, they are very diverse religiously, culturally, geographically, and by descent.

Contents: Foreword; Introduction; The Uniting of China; Creating Ethnic Identity in China: The Making of the Hui Nationality; Ethnoreligious Resurgence in a Northwestern Sufi Community; Chang Ying: Gender, Marriage, and Identity in a Hui Autonomous Village; Oxen Street: The Urban Hui Experience in Beijing; Chendai: Ethnic Revitalization in Quanzhou, Fujian; Conclusion: Ethnic National Identity in the Contemporary Chinese State.  Descriptors: 1990s, anthropology, book, China, ethnography, G, Hui, identity, post-Soviet.
Dautcher, Jay. Down a Narrow Road: Identity and Masculinity in a Uyghur Community in Xinjiang China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2009.

Dautcher's book is the result of ethnographic research among Uygurs in Yining, Xinjiang, China beginning in 1995.  With regard to Islam, he discusses life cycle rituals, shrine visits, mahalla life, the meshrep, and Ramadan.  The comparison of the olturash (men's drinking parties) and the meshrep (parties where alcohol drinking is punished on religious grounds) is very interesting. The question of what is truly Islamic is present.  Dautcher quotes a lot of poems and jokes and has too much of a focus on sexuality.
Chuvin, Pierre and Gérard Degeorge. Samarkand, Bukara, Khiva. Paris: Flammarion, 2001.

This is an amazing coffee table book (photos & text) of Islamic architecture in Samarqand, Bukhara, and Khiva.

Sections: Foreward; Samarkand and Shahr-e Sabz; Bukhara; The Khwarazm and its Capitals: Old Urgench and Khiva; Appendices.  Descriptors: 2000s, architecture, Bukhara, C, coffee table, D, Khiva, photography, Samarqand, Uzbekistan.
"Architecture." In Central Asian Art, 25-59. London: Greenwich Edition, 2003.

In addition to many architectural photos, this chapter in this nice coffee table book has easy to read text describing Islamic architecture in Central Asia.  As with most works on architecture in the region, Samarqand, Bukhara, and Khiva in Uzbekistan are most represented.

Sections: Triumph of Islam; The Art of Decoration; Predominance of Religious Art; The Golden Age of the Builders; Tradition and Modernity.  Descriptors: 2000s, A, architecture, Bukhara, chapter, coffee table, Khiva, photography, pre-Tsarist, Samarqand, Uzbekistan.
O'kane, Bernard. "Iran and Central Asia." In The Mosque: History, Architectural Development & Regional Diversity, edited by Martin Frishman and Hasan-Uddin Khan, 119-139. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1994.

This is a great coffee table book with nice Islamic architecture photos.  The text is mostly historical and mainly about Iran with some comment on Central Asia and very little about western China.

Sections: Early Mosques; The Seljuq Period (eleventh-twelfth centuries); The Il-Khanid Period (1256-1353); The Timurid Period (1370-1506); Central Asia and Western China, Post-Sixteenth Century; The Musalla; The Safavid Period (sixteenth-eighteenth centuries); The Qajar Period (1779-1924); Modern Mosques.  Descriptors: 1990s, architecture, chapter, coffee table, O, photography, pre-Tsarist.
Aigine Cultural Research Center. "Traditional Spiritual Practices." In "Traditional Knowledge in Kyrgyzstan." Aigine Cultural Research Center.

This is a great website which covers Kyrgyz sacred rituals and shrines in text, photos, and video.  It also contains a glossary, search box, and discussion of whether mazar visits are compatible with Islam.  To access much of the information, however, one must register with the site.

Sections: Sacred Sites; Rituals; Kyrgyzchylyk, Manaschylyk; Sacred Capacity and Medicine; Master and Apprentice.  Descriptors: 2010s, A, ethnography, Kyrgyz, Kyrgyzstan, photography, photos, RITUALS, SHRINES, SITES, video, website; religious life.
Lawton, John. "Muslims in China: The People." Saudi Aramco World, July/August 1985,

Lawton provides a good brief introduction to the Muslims in China.  While he mentions the ten official Muslim ethnicities in China, his main focus is on the three largest ethnicities; the Hui, Uygurs, and Kazaks.  Other than the fact that most of these people are Muslim, there is no discussion of their religious practices.

Sections: The Kazakhs; the Uighurs; the Hui.  Descriptors: 1980s, bibliographic, China, identity, L, magazine, post-Soviet, pre-Tsarist; Hui, Kazak, Kirgiz, Sala, Tajik, Tatar, Tungxiang, Paoan, Uygur and Uzbek.
Cowen, Jill S. "Muslims in China: The Mosques." Saudi Aramco World, July/August 1985,  

Cowen discusses the local non-Islamic architectural styles of some mosques in China.  In doing so she mentions subtle Islamic influences that make the mosques useful to Muslims, but also local traditional elements that also make them appealing to non-Muslims. 
Lunde, Paul. "Muslims in China: The History." Saudi Aramco World, July/August 1985,

Lunde's article appears to be well researched and contains quotes and references to many historical documents.  It mostly discusses the introduction of Islam to what is today China by Arabs, ancestors of the Hui.  Lunde's discussion of Turkic Muslims in the region is limited.  He discusses in detail the relationship between Ch'agan (Xi'an) and Baghdad.  There are only a few paragraphs at the end briefly discussing the history of Islam in what is today China from the initial period to modern times.  Descriptors: 1980s, archival, China, history, L, magazine, pre-Tsarist; Hui, Xi'an, Kashgar, Ferghana
Lawton, John. "Muslims in China: The Country." Saudi Aramco World, July/August 1985,

Lawton briefly describes the geography and lifestyle of some contemporary Muslims in China.  He mostly follows the Silk Road from Xi'an to Turpan.  Descriptors: 1980s, bibliographic, China, journalism, L, magazine, post-Soviet; geography
Lawton, John. "Muslims in China: An Introduction." Saudi Aramco World, July/August 1985,

With a very brief historical introduction, Lawton discusses the relationship between contemporary Muslims in China and the Chinese government.  He portrays a modest Islamic revival in the country.  As these relations have changed since the 1980s, especially in western China, this article is out of date.  Descriptors: 1980s, China, e-article, interview, journalism, L, magazine, overview, post-Soviet.
Knobloch, Edgar. Monuments of Central Asia: A Guide to the Archaeology, Art and Architecture of Turkestan. New York: I.B. Tauris, 2001.

As the subtitle implies, this is a comprehensive guide to the archeology, art, and architecture of Central Asia, western China, and Afghanistan.  It contains a lot of textual description and some architectural photos and sketches of designs plans.

Sections: List of Maps and Plans; Preface; Acknowledgements; Introduction; Part 1 The Countries (Land and People; Outline of History; Civilisation; Architecture and Architectural Decoration; The Sources); Part II Central Asia (Khorezm; The Zarafshan Valley; Turkmenistan; The Amu Darya Valley and Southern Tajikistan; The Syr Darya and Ferghana Valleys; Kazakhstan and Kirghizstan); Part III Xinjian or Eastern Turkestan (History; Urumchi, Turfan and Kucha; Tun-huang to Kashgar); Part IV Afghanistan (History; The Centre and the East; The West; The North; The South); Appendix: Aftermath of Destruction; Bibliography; Index.  Descriptors: 2000s, architecture, book, K
Bleaney, C.H., et al., editors. Index Islamicus, Vol. 32. Cambridge University Library, and University of London. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 2010,

According to its own description: "Index Islamicus is THE international classified bibliography of publications in European languages on all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world."  It contains many entries of works on Islam in Central Asia.  Descriptors: 2010s, B, bibliography, website
Sarwar, Sultan. "Central Asia: Madrasahs Lead Religious Teaching Revival (Part 4)" Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, August 9, 2005, By Country / Afghanistan section,

Sarwar appears to be discussing madrasas in post-Soviet Central Asia from an Afghanistan perspective.  Only interview quotations from Afghanistan and Uzbekistan are represented.  Those from Uzbekistan only discuss the historical legacy of madrasas in the region.  While the article discusses state control of madrasas in Uzbekistan, it lacks a good perspective of the current situation of madrasas throughout contemporary Central Asia (cf. Najibullah).  Here are links to the other parts in this series: Part 1, Part 2Part 3Descriptors: 2000s, Afghanistan, e-news, journalism, madrasa, post-Soviet, revival, S, Uzbekistan
Rakhimov, Allamurad. "Central Asia: Regional Leaders Try to Control Islam (Part 2)." Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, August 5, 2005, By Country / Kazakhstan section,
As the title implies, state control of Islam in post-Soviet Central Asia is the topic of this article.  It mostly covers Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, but does give a brief paragraph to Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan.  As President Niyazov has died, the article is out of date.  Further, it is not comprehensive and only discusses some of the issues. Here are links to the other parts of this series: Part 1, Part 3, Part 4Descriptors: 2000s, e-news, journalism, post-Soviet, R, state control.
ArchNet: Islamic Architecture Community. "Digital Library." ArchNet: Islamic Architecture Community,

This website contains various links to images of and publications regarding Islamic architecture. The City and Country Names section includes Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and China along with some of their cities.  Some examples include:
Montgomery, David W. "Namaz, Wishing Trees, and Vodka: The Diversity of Everyday Religious Life in Central Asia." In Everyday Life in Central Asia: Past and Present, edited by Jeff Sahadeo and Russell Zanca, 355-370. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2007.

In this chapter Montgomery follows three people in Kyrgyzstan and describes how they each practice and view Islam differently. He argues that religion in Central Asia is diverse and important to the people, but not all consuming.

Contents: Ideas of Islamic Orthopraxy and the Problem of Purity; Traditional Religious Practice, Syncretism, and Everyday Religious Meaning; Multiple Meanings of Sacred Space: The Case of Solomon's Mountain; Russian Orthodoxy, the New Christians, and the Challenge of Plurality; Religion on the Streets
Roberts, Sean R. "Everyday Negotiations of Islam in Central Asia: Practicing Religion in The Uyghur Neighborhood of Zarya Vostoka in Almaty, Kazakhstan." In Everyday Life in Central Asia: Past and Present, edited by Jeff Sahadeo and Russell Zanca, 339-354. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.

Roberts does a good job in this chapter of showing the diversity of Islam in a village near Almaty Kazakhstan.  To do so he describes the influence of religion in three community events: a Muslim holiday, the blessing of a soccer field, and a wedding.

Sections: Daily Religious Practice in Central Asia: Making Sense of Diversity; Bourdieu's "Theory of Practice" as a Means of Understanding Everyday Life in Central Asia; Zarya Vostoka: From Collective Farm to Land Port on a New Silk Road; Daily Religious Practice and Negotiation in Zarya Vostoka (Qorbon Hayit in Zarya Vostoka; Blessing of the Zarya Vostoka Soccer Field; A Wedding in Zarya Vostoka); Conclusions: Toward an Everyday Understanding of Religiosity in Central Asia
Lawton, John. "Central and South Asia." In Islam's Path East. Saudi Aramco World, November/December 1991,

This article is mostly historical tracing the golden age of Islam and the Silk Road.  It does have a few paragraphs on Central Asia, mostly discussing its historical conquerors.
Saudi Aramco World. "Muslims in China: A Special Issue." Saudi Aramco World, July/August 1985,

This is a special issue on Islam in China.  Here are some great images related to this issue.  Sections: An Introduction; The Country; The History; The Mosques; The PeopleDescriptors: 1980s, China, journalism, magazine, S.
Privratsky, Bruce G. Muslim Turkistan: Kazak Religion and Collective Memory. Richmond UK: Curzon, 2001.

Privratsky's book is a good ethnographic survey of contemporary Islamic practice among Kazakhs in Turkistan, Kazakhstan. It discusses, among other things, Sufism, lines of ancestry traced to the first century of Islam, observance (or non-observance) of the five pillars of Islam, shrine visitations like that of the Yasawi Mausoleum, veneration of ancestors, and healing arts. There are interesting discussions about pre-Islamic influences of contemporary religious practices and what are true Islamic practices. 

Contents: Maps and Illustrations; Preface; Abbreviations; Transliteration; The Problem of Kazak Religion; Kiyeli Jer: Muslim Landscapes and Kazak Ethnicity; Taza Jol: The Pure Way of Islam Among the Kazaks; Aruaq: Remembering the Ancestors; Auliye: Remembering the Saints; Emshi: The Kazak Healer; Kazak Religion and Collective Memory; Religion as Culture and Spirit; Appendix: Principal Informants; References Cited; Glossary; Index
Moses, Larry W. "Uigur." In Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey, edited by Richard V. Weekes, 451-454. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978.

This short chapter outlines the history of the Uygurs. Only the last two paragraphs discuss Islam and they state that the Uygurs began to adopt Islam in the tenth century; like other Turkic groups, they were heavily influenced by Sufis; and they remained devout Muslims until the communist period.
Northrop, Douglas. "The Limits of Liberation: Gender, Revolution, and the Veil in Everyday Life in Soviet Uzbekistan." In Everyday Life in Central Asia: Past and Present, edited by Jeff Sahadeo and Russell Zanca, 89-102. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.

This chapter appears to be a shorter version of Northrop's book Veiled Empire. It provides a concise picture of the hujum attempt by the Soviets to remove the veil from Muslim women in Uzbekistan. The Appendix contains a letter to the Samarqand City Soviet signed by 20 female school teachers chastising the government for not supporting them in resulting social pressures when they took off the veil.

Sections: A Quotidian Revolution: Veils and Family Life in the Soviet Empire; Appendix
Kamp, Marianne. The New Woman in Uzbekistan: Islam, Modernity, and Unveiling Under Communism. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2006.

While other works on the hujum (Soviet efforts to eliminate the veil) start with the hujum, Kamp shows the history of veiling in Uzbekistan prior to the hujum.  In some parts it was drier than I expected, but it is an important work given the relative lack of information on the topic, and subtopics like otins.  It also has a good glossary of terms.

Sections: Russian Colonialism in Turkestan and Bukhara; Jadids and the Reform of Women; The Revolution and Rights for Uzbek Women; The Otin and the Soviet School (The Otin and Traditional Education; Closing the Door); The New Women; Unveiling before the Hujum; The Hujum; The Counter-Hujum: Terror and Veiling; Continuity and Change in Uzbek Women's Lives; Conclusions
Armijo, Jacqueline. "Islam in China." In Asian Islam in the 21st Century, edited by John L. Esposito, John Obert Voll and Osman Bakar. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

This is a good overview of Islam in contemporary China.

Sections: Historical Background; Recent Revival of Religious Identity; Expanding Networks and Developing Identity; Human Rights Concerns: From the Cultural Revolution to the Post-9/11 War on Terror; Democratization, Civil Society, and Islamic Education; Economic Growth, Social Unrest, and Ethnic Tensions; Challenges Facing Women and Girls in China and the Role of Islam as a Mitigating Factor; Conclusion.  Descriptors: 2000s, A, chapter, China, overview, post-Soviet.
Bennigsen, Alexandre and Fanny E. Bryan. "Islam in Central Asia." In The Religious Traditions of Asia, edited by Joseph M. Kitagawa, 239-254. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co., 1989.

This is a good brief overview of the history of Islam in Central Asia. It does contain some Sovieteological descriptions of moderate and syncretic Islam in the region.

Sections: The Beginning of Islamization; The Rooting of Islam; The Early Spread of Islam; Sufi Influence; The Period of Disasters; The Kara-Khitay in Central Asia; Central Asia Under the Mongols; The Victory of Islam and the Era of Decadence; The Tariqahs; Later Dynasties; Russian and Soviet Domination; Islam in Central Asia Today; Administration; Sufi Organizations. Descriptors: 1980s, B, bibliographic, chapter, overview, post-Soviet, pre-Tsarist, Soviet, Tsarist; syncretism, superficial.
Benson, Linda and Ingvar Svanberg. China's Last Nomads: The History and Culture of China's Kazaks. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1998.

This book contains a good historical and contemporary history of the Kazaks in Central Asia and China.

Sections: The Kazaks of Northwestern China: The Physical and Cultural Setting; Kazaks in Central Eurasia and China to the Twentieth Century; China's Kazaks, 1912-1949; CCP Minority Policy and Its Implementation in Xinjiang; Life at the Local Level: Development and Change in Xinjiang's Autonomous Kazak Areas; Kazak Culture and Chinese Politics; Kazakhstan and China's Kazaks in the Twenty-First Century
Geiss, Paul Georg. Pre-Tsarist and Tsarist Central Asia: Communal Commitment and Political Order in Change. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Geiss's book has a good history of customary law (aksakal/oqsoqol and biy/bii) and Islamic law (qadi/qazi) courts in Central Asia. With regard to Islamic law, it discusses the importance of the mahalla and with regard to customary law, it discusses the importance of tribal relations. It appears well researched and has maps and graphs of tribal relations and a nice glossary of terms. It concludes by arguing that an understanding of the communal commitment structures in Central Asia is necessary before democratic reforms can be achieved.

Contents: Tribal Communal Commitment; Residential Communal Commitment; Pre-Tsarist Tribal Political Integration; Dynastic Rule in the River Oases: Between Tribalism and Patrimonialism; The Tsarist Administration and its Impact on Communal Commitment; Tsarist Protectorates; Prospects.  Descriptors: 2000s, ACTORS, archival, book, G, history, Islamic law, mahalla, oqsoqols, pre-Tsarist, reform, SITES, Tsarist.
Geiss, Paul G. "Mahallah and Kinship Relations: A Study on Residential Communal Commitment Structures in Central Asia of the 19th Century." Central Asian Survey 20, no. 1 (2001): 97-106.

Geiss's article discusses the role of Islamic law and kinship relations within the mahalla. It also discusses the role of oqsoqol (aksakal in Kyrgyz or arbob in Tajik) elders.

Contents: Neighbourhood Community; The Impacts of Islamic law (Sharia); Kinship and Residency; Tribal and Residential Communal Commitment
Frank, Allen J. and Mirkasyim A. Usmanov, eds. An Islamic Biographical Dictionary of the Eastern Kazakh Steppe, 1770-1912: Khalidi, Qurban-'Ali. Brill's Inner Asian Library, Vol. 12, edited by Nicola Di Cosmo, Devin Deweese and Caroline Humphrey. Leiden: Brill, 2005.

This book, which was written between 1911 and 1913, contains many short biographies translated into English of Muslim figures in the eastern Kazakh steppe.  Qurban-'Ali Khalidi, the author, lived from 1846 to 1913.  He was a chief judge (qazi/qadi) for local Turkic Muslims and was accomplished in Qur'an recitation and Islamic law. 

Contents: Introduction (The Author and his Works; Islam in Eastern Kazakhstan and Dzungaria; Islamic Biographical Dictionaries in Imperial Russia; The Manuscript: Its Scope, Sources, and Language; Editor's Notes on the Edition); the Dictionary (English Translation and Notes; Turkic Text)
Feldbrugge, F. J. M. "Criminal Law and Traditional Society: The Role of Soviet Law in the Integration of Non-Slavic Peoples." Review of Socialist Law 3 (1977): 3-51.

This paper uses Russian archival sources to outline the Russian and Soviet intervention into the legal systems, and therefore the society, of their subjects in the Caucasus and Central Asia.  Among other topics, it discusses criminal law, family law (the bride price, polygamy, etc.), and the Soviet attack of the veil (hujum).  It also discusses the treatment of kazi (qadi) courts and Islamic law as well as bii/biy, manap, and aksakal courts and customary law.

Sections: Introduction; Before 1917; The Soviet Approach; What Types of Conduct are Singled Out?; The Legislative Implementation of Soviet Policies; Some Statistical Data; The Legal Provisions Concerning Traditional Crime; Postscript on the Post-War Situation
Feldman, Walter. "Interpreting the Poetry of Mahktumquli." In Muslims in Central Asia: Expressions of Identity and Change, edited by Jo-Ann Gross, 167-189. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992.

In addition to being "the most significant figure in the creation of Turkmenian written literature," Mahktumquli is also a Muslim figure from Turkmenistan.  The following introduction, also from page 167, describes the chapter: "This brief chapter will attempt to demonstrate how the aesthetic choices of Mahktumquli made literary form into a strong symbol of the historical and the incipient national consciousness of the Turkmen people."

Sections: The Biography of Mahktumquli; Poetry of Mahktumquli
Bleuer, Christian. "The Afghanistan Analyst Bibliography, 5th Edition." The Afghanistan Analyst (2010),

This bibliography is of contemporary Afghanistan with works in English, French, German, and Russian.  Most works are not limited to northern Afghanistan.  There is, however, a section on Ethnic Groups which includes works on Uzbeks, Turkmen, and Tajiks in Afghanistan.  The other relevant section is Islam: Political Islam, Sharia, "Jihad", Sects and Religious Affairs.  Descriptors: 2010s, Afghanistan, B, bibliography, e-article, post-Soviet
Abramson, David M. and Elyor E. Karimov. "Sacred Sites, Profane Ideologies: Religious Pilgrimage and the Uzbek State." In Everyday Life in Central Asia: Past and Present, edited by Jeff Sahadeo and Russell Zanca, 319-338. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.

This chapter is very interesting and based on archival information and fieldwork. It reviews the contemporary practice of visiting sacred shrines in Uzbekistan. In doing so it shows the difference between Islam as interpreted by ordinary people and those who have religious education and how the state controls Islam in contemporary Uzbekistan.

Sections: Definition of a Sacred Site; Shared Shrines, Contested Practices (The Shrine of Ughlanjon-ota; The Tomb of Bahauddin Naqshband); Rethinking Religion in the Post-Soviet World; Conclusions: Islam and the Anthropology of Social Change
Northrop, Douglas. Veiled Empire: Gender & Power in Stalinist Central Asia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004.

In addition to the hujum (the Soviet effort to remove the veil from women in Central Asia), this book also discusses byt crimes dealing with polygamy, marriage, divorce, the bride price, etc. It has some discussion of jadids (new Islam) and qadimists (old school Islam) and also tangentially discusses Islamic law.  Sections: Embodying Uzbekistan; Hujum, 1927, Bolshevik Blinders; The Chust Affair; Subaltern Voices; With Friends Like These; Crimes of Daily Life; The Limits of Law; Stalin's Central Asia; Conclusion
Babur Padshah Ghazi, Zahiru'd-din Muhammad. Babur - Nama (Memoirs of Babur). Translated by Annette Susannah Beveridge. New Delhi: Oriental Books. Reprint, 1970. First published in 1922 by Annette Beveridge.

Babur (1483-1530) was the founder of the Moghul Dynasty in India. The Baburnama is his autobiography written in Turki text.  It follows, Babur's rule from Samarqand, through Kabul and other cities, and to India.  In the work, Babur keeps track of time according to Muslim prayers and holidays and he discusses his practice of Islam with regard to such items as drinking/refraining from alcohol consumption.
McGlinchey, Eric M. "Divided Faith: Trapped Between State and Islam in Uzbekistan." In Everyday Life in Central Asia: Past and Present, edited by Jeff Sahadeo and Russell Zanca, 305-318. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.

McGlinchey's chapter is very interesting. It tells the stories of a few contemporary pious, but not radical, individuals who were persecuted by the government in order to show how Uzbekistan monitors and controls religious activity and mosques. McGlinchey argues that piety does not equal extremism.  Sections: The Neighborhood Mosque and the Limits of Uzbek State Control; Family Life and State Intimidation; The State's Manipulation of Radical Islam; Conclusion
Saidazimova, Gulnoza. "Central Asia: Region Returns To Muslim Roots (Part 1)." Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, August 4, 2005,

This is a basic overview of Islam in Central Asia, which mentions, among other things, the five pillars of Islam, the four classical Sunni madhabs (guilds of jurisprudence), and the contemporary authoritarian state control of religion.  Here are links to the next three parts: Part 2, Part 3, Part 4.

Comments: 2/3/10
It is interesting that Privratsky (2001) discusses how phrases similar to the following quote from this article have become the profession of faith (shahada) for Kazakh Muslims in Turkistan, Kazakhstan: "I have no special knowledge of Islam, but Al-hamdulillah, I am a Muslim," said one man in the Tajik capital, Dushanbe.

Descriptors: 2000s, e-news, interview, journalism, overview, post-Soviet, revival, S.
Hajib, Yusuf Khass. Wisdom of Royal Glory (Kutadgu Bilig): A Turko-Islamic Mirror for Princes. Publications of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 16., edited by Richard L. Chambers. Translated by Robert Dankoff. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1983.

The Karakhanid Turks embraced Islam in 961. About one hundred years later, Yusuf Hass Hajib wrote the Qutadgu Bilig in Karakhanid or Middle Turkic and presented it to the Karakhanid Khan. There are four major characters in this work: 1) Rising Sun (the king who represents justice), 2) Full Moon (the Vizier who represents fortune), 3) Highly Praised (a sage who represents intellect/wisdom, and 4) Wide Awake (a ascetic who represents man’s last end).  The work is Islamic and gives advice to future generations.
Gullette, David. "Introduction: Religion and Ethnicity." In "Kinship, State, and 'Tribalism': The Genealogical Construction of the Kyrgyz Republic," 13-15. PhD diss., University of Cambridge, 2006,

This is a three page section on religion and ethnicity in Kyrgyzstan in a dissertation that is otherwise not about Islam.  It discusses the interrelationship between kinship, ethnicity, social practices, and religion and argues that religion has been an identity marker and is just now becoming a belief system in Kyrgyzstan.
Muhammad Ali. Eternal Longings: Historical Novel. Translated by Dilbarkhon Muhammad Ali qizi. Tashkent: Literature Foundation Press, 2006.

This is a nice historical novel set in the early 20th century. It traces the true story of Said Mahmudkhon Ture (and some of his relations) who was raised in Chust, Uzbekistan, but ended up as a religious scholar at the Dorulmuallimin madrasa in Kabul, Afghanistan. His mother was an otin and his grandfather was a Sufi ishan and sheikh.  The book's main theme is Uzbeks who ended up outside of their motherland for various reasons, including escape from the Soviet regime, and their "eternal longings" to return to the motherland.  As the author jumps between scenes, the reading does not always easily flow, but it provides some very interesting insights into Islam in Central Asia that can only be achieved through Central Asian literature. 
Najibullah, Farangis. "'SMS Divorces' Cut Tajik Migrants' Matrimonial Ties to Home." Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty, December 17, 2009, Features section,

This article discusses divorce as an impact of labor migration out of Tajikistan and into places like Russia. It points out that after receiving a text message from their husbands working abroad with the words "talaq," or divorce, many women do not know how to protect themselves through divorce proceedings in state court.  Sections: Laws vs. Reality; 'Part-Time Marriage'
Liu, Morgan Y. "A Central Asian Tale of Two Cities: Locating Lives and Aspirations in a Shifting Post-Soviet Cityscape." In Everyday Life in Central Asia: Past and Present, edited by Jeff Sahadeo and Russell Zanca, 66-83. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.

This chapter is an interesting comparison between life in Soviet apartment blocks and mahallas in Osh, Kyrgyzstan. Liu shows that those living in the mostly Uzbek mahallas turn more to Islam for moral guidance than those living in the Russian apartment blocs.  Sections: Bazaar Nexus; Soviet City; Entering the Mahalla; Conclusion: Two Cities, Two Visions
Walsh, Harry H. “Turkic-Speaking Peoples.” In Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey, edited by Richard V. Weekes, 422-427. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978.

This chapter is mostly linguistic and shows the diversity of Turkic people in Central Asia.  Here is one of the few quotes about Islam from page 427: "The Kirgiz, alone among the eastern Turks [Kirgiz-Kipchak and Khakas-Yakut], practice Islam, albeit with a shamanistic substratum."  Descriptors: 1970s, bibliographic, chapter, identity, linguistics, Soviet, W; syncretism
Irons, William G. "Turkmen." In Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey, edited by Richard V. Weekes, 427-433. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978.

This chapter reviews Turkmen culture in Central Asia.  It states that the main reason why the Turkmen were nomadic was so that they could raid the sedentary populations and retreat into more arid regions. It also outlines some of the social obligations of sons to fathers and wives to husbands. 
Dupree, Louis. "Tajik." In Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey, edited by Richard V. Weekes, 389-395. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978.

This is a very interesting chapter. It compares the Tajiks in Afghanistan to those in Soviet Central Asia where life is different due to the Soviet influence. It also briefly discusses Ismaili Muslims in the region and the following topics: agriculture, animal husbandry, home styles, tribal democracy, alcohol, etc. It mentions that Tajik women rarely wore the veil and influenced decisions in the village councils (majlis) even though they did not attend. 
Mote, Victor L. "Tatars." In Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey, edited by Richard V. Weekes, 395-400. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978.

Among other items, this chapter discusses the complexity of the Tatar identity, the relative importance of education to them, and family matters.  Descriptors: 1970s, chapter, ethnography, identity, M, political science, Soviet, Tatar
Mote, Victor L. "Kirgiz." In Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey, edited by Richard V. Weekes, 215-220. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978.

This chapter helps demonstrate the diversity of Islam in Central Asia. It discusses the animal husbandry and the remaining semi-nomadic ways of the Kyrgyz in Soviet times. It also discusses the condition of women in marriage and points out that they did not wear the veil.

Najibullah, Farangis. "In Central Asia, Unofficial Madrasahs Raise Official Fears" Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty, January 27, 2010, Features section,

This articles discusses families that send their children to unofficial madrasas overseas. The fear is that since many of the overseas madrasas are not sanctioned by the domestic state, the children will bring back radical ideas.   

Contents: Unsanctioned Education; Anti-Extremist Efforts.  Descriptors: 2010s, e-news, interview, journalism, madrasa, N, post-Soviet, state control.

Montgomery, David C. "Uzbek." In Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey, edited by Richard V. Weekes, 460-464. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978.

This chapter briefly describes the history and culture of Uzbeks during Soviet times. It also discusses their conversion to Islam and the Soviet treatment of Islam. Despite Soviet laws, it states that Uzbeks continued certain religious practices such circumcision, Islamic feast days, Islamic marriage and funerals, polygamy, shrine visits, patron Islamic saints, and Muslim names. It also discusses the Soviet attempts to liberate women with marriage, divorce, and polygamy laws and the campaign to end the veil.
Polonskaya, Ludmila and Alexei Malashenko. Islam in Central Asia. Reading: Ithaca Press, 1994.

This book summarizes the pre-Tzarist, Tzarist, Soviet, and post-Soviet history of Islam in Central Asia. It argues that the Bolsheviks in Soviet times were not able to abolish Islam as it merely went underground. It uses many Russian sources that may not be easily accessible and mentions early Moslem reformers in the region and compares them to reformers in other Muslim countries like Egypt. It's main draw-back is that it is not current. For example, the authors speculate that Islamic fundamentalism would have greater political power in Central Asia than it has had in the 15 years since the book's publication. 

Contents: Islam and Central Asia before the Russian conquest; Islam in Central Asia from the period of colonisation to the 1917 Revolution; Islam and Moslems of Central Asia under the communist regime; The first steps of Islamic renaissance; Islam and politics; New Moslem Central Asian States and Russia.  Descriptors: 1990s, book, history, M, overview, P, post-Soviet, pre-Tsarist, Soviet, Tsarist.